2021年考研英语二阅读理解解析(石家庄新东方)

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  text 1

  reskilling is something that sounds like a buzzword but is actually a
requirement if we plan to have a future where a lot of would-be workers do not
get left behind.

  we know we are moving into a period where the jobs in demand will change
rapidly, as will the requirements of the jobs that remain. research by the wef
detailed in the harvard business review, finds that on average 42 per cent of
the “core skill” within job roles will change by 2022.that is a very short
timeline, so we can only imagine what the changes will be further in the
future.

  the question of who should pay for reskilling is a thorny one. for
individual companies, the temptation is always to let go of workers whose skills
are no longer demand and replace them with those whose skills are. that does not
always happen. at&t is often given as the gold standard of a company who
decided to do a massive reskilling program rather than go with a fire-and-hire
strategy ultimately retraining 18,000 employees. prepandemic, other companies
including amazon and disney had also pledged to create their own plans. when the
skills mismatch is in the broader economy though, the focus usually turns to
government to handle. efforts in canada and elsewhere have been arguably languid
at best, and have given us a situation where we frequently hear of employers
begging for workers even at times and in regions where unemployment is high.

  with the pandemic, unemployment is very high indeed. in february, at 3.5
per cent and 5.5 per cent respectively, unemployment rates in canada and the
united states were at generational lows and worker shortages were everywhere. as
of may, those rates had spiked up to 13.3 per cent and 13.7 per cent, and
although many worker shortages had disappeared, not all had done so. in the
medical field, to take an obvious example, the pandemic meant that there were
still clear shortages of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel.

  of course, it is not like you can take an unemployed waiter and train him
to be doctor in few weeks, no matter who pays for it. but even if you cannot
close that gap, maybe you can close others, and doing so would be to the benefit
of all concerned. that seems to be the case in sweden, where the pandemic
kick-started a retraining program where business as well as government had a
role. that seems to be the case in sweden when forced to furlough 90p.c.of their
cabin staff. standinavian airline decided to start up a short retaining program
that reskilled the laid of workers to support hospital stuff. the effort was a
collective one and involved other companies as well as a swedish university.

  21. research by the world economic forum suggests

  a. an increase in full-time employment

  b. an urgent demand for new job skills

  c. a steady growth of job opportunities

  d. a controversy about the “core skills”

  【答案】b

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据关键词world economic forum定位到原文第二段research by the wef detailed in
the harvard business review, finds that on average 42 per cent of the “core
skill” within job roles will change by 2022.that is a very short timeline, so we
can only imagine what the changes will be further in the
future.意为“wef的研究发现到2022年,职位职责中平均42%的核心技能将发生变化。这是一个非常短的时间段,因此我们只能想象在将来还会发生进一步的改变。”与b选项“对于新工作技能需求紧迫”表述一致。a选项full-time
employment原文未提及,无中生有。c选项job opportunities原文未提及,无中生有。d选项文中提到core
skills,但并未提到controversy争议,属于过度推理。

  22. at&t is cited to show

  a. an alternative to the fire-and-hire strategy

  b. an immediate need for government support

  c. the importance of staff appraisal standards

  d. the characteristics of reskilling program

  【答案】a

  【解题思路】本题为例证题,例证题答案应该在例子前后的观点句,根据关键词at&t定位到原文第三段例子前的句子for individual
companies, the temptation is always to let go of workers whose skills are no
longer demand and replace them with those whose skills are. that does not always
happen.
意为“对于个别公司而言,总是应该让辞退那些不再满足技能要求的工人,而将其替换为那些满足技能要求的工人。但并非总是如此。”所以at&t的例子印证了并不是所有公司都会选择辞退工人,与a选项“对于辞退策略的替代”表述一致。b选项government文中未提及。c选项staff
appraisal
standards文中未提及。d选项reskilling文中提到,但是并未提及它的特征(characteristics),属于过度推理。

  23. efforts to resolve the skills mismatch in canada

  a. have driven up labour costs

  b. have proved to be inconsistent

  c. have met with fierce opposition

  d. have appeared to be insufficient

  【答案】d

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据关键词 efforts和canada定位到原文第三段最后一句efforts in canada and elsewhere
have been arguably languid at best, and have given us a situation where we
frequently hear of employers begging for workers even at times and in regions
where unemployment is high.
意为“在加拿大和其他地方所做的努力告诉我们,经常听到雇主甚至在失业率很高的地区急需工人。”作者认为加拿大急需工人,所以所需要的技能不足够,与d选项“似乎是不足够的”表述一致。a选项labour
costs文中未提及。b选项inconsistent文中未提及。c选项fierceopposition强烈反对,文中未提及。

  24. we can learn from paragraph 3 that there was

  a. a call for policy adjustment.

  b. a change in hiring practices.

  c. a lack of medical workers.

  d. a sign of economic recovery.

  【答案】c

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据题干定位到第三段最后一句in the medical field, to take an obvious example,
the pandemic meant that there were still clear shortages of doctors, nurses and
other medical
personnel.意为“在医疗领域,疫情意味着医生、护士和其他医务人员短缺问题依然严重。”与c选项“缺乏医疗员工”表述一致。abd三个选项原文均未提及。

  25. scandinavian airlines decided to

  a. great job vacancies for the unemployed.

  b. prepare their laid-off workers for other jobs.

  c. retrain their cabin staff for better services.

  d. finance their staff’ s college education.

  【答案】b

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据关键词scandinavian airlines定位到原文最后一段倒数第二句standinavian airline
decided to start up a short retraining program that reskilled the laid off
workers to support hospital stuff.
意为“standinavian航空公司决定开始培训一些退休工人来增加医疗员工”,与b选项“让退休工为其他工作做准备”表述一致。a选项great job
vacancies与原文表述相反。c选项retrain培训的并非cabinstaff,而是laid off workers。d选项文中未提及,无中生有。

  text 2

  with the global population predicted to hit close to 10 billion by 2050,
and forecasts thatagricultural production in some regions will need to nearly
double to keep pace, food security isincreasingly making headlines. in the uk,
it has become a big talking point recently too, for arather particular reason:
brexit.

  brexit is seen by some as an opportunity to reverse a recent trend towards
the uk importingfood. the country produces only about 60 per cent of the food it
eats, down from almostthree-quarters in the late 1980s. a move back to
self-sufficiency, the argument goes, would boost the farming industry, political
sovereignty and even the nations health. sounds great- but howfeasible is this
vision?

  according to a report on uk food production from the university of leeds,
uk, 85 percentof the country’s total land area is associated with meat and dairy
production. that supplies 80 percent of what is consumed, so even covering the
whole country in livestock farms wouldn’t allowus to cover all our meat and
dairy needs.

  there are many caveats to those figures, but they are still grave. to
become much moreself-sufficient, the uk would need to drastically reduce its
consumption of animal foods, andprobably also farm more intensively meaning
fewer green fields and more factory-styleproduction.

  but switching to a mainly plant-based diet wouldn’t help. there is a good
reason why the ukis dominated by animal husbandry: most of its terrain doesn’t
have the right soil or climate to grow crops on commercial basis. just 25 per
cent of the country’s land is suitable forcrop-growing, most of which is already
occupied by arable fields. even if we converted all thesuitable land to fields
of fruit and veg— which would involve taking out all the nature reserves and
removing thousands of people from their homes—we would achieve only a 30 percent
boost in crop production.

  just 23 per cent of the fruit and vegetables consumed in the uk are
currently home-grown, soeven with the most extreme measures we could meet only
30 per cent of our fresh produce needs.that is before we look for the space to
grow the grains, sugars, seeds and oils that provide us withthe vast bulk of our
current calorie intake.

  26. some people argue that food self-sufficiency in the uk would____.

  [a]a be hindered by its population growth

  [b]contribute to the nations well-being

  [c]become a priority of the government

  [d]post a challenge to its farming industry

  【答案】b

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据关键词self-sufficiency定位到原文第二段a move back to self-sufficiency,
the argument goes, would boost the farming industry, political sovereignty and
even the nations health. 意为“回到自给自足的做法将促进农业、政治主权乃至整个国家的健康。”与b选项“
有助于英国的良好发展”表述一致。a选项populationgrowth文中提到的是人口增长带来农业问题,并非阻碍了自给自足的发展。c选项government文中未提及。d选项farmingindustry文中提到,但并未提到带来挑战(pose
a challenge)

  27. the report by the university of leeds showed that in the uk

  [a] farmland has been inefficiently utilised

  [b] factory style production needs reforming

  [c] most land is used for meat and dairy production

  [d] more green fields will be converted for farming

  【答案】c

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据关键词university of leeds定位至文章第三段第一句according to a report on uk
food production from the university of leeds, uk, 85 percent of the country’s
total land area is associated with meat and dairy production.
意为“国土面积的85%与肉类和奶制品生产有关。”,与c选项“大部分土地被用来生产肉制品和奶制品”表述一致。abd选项文中未提及,无中生有。

  28. crop-growing in the uk is restricted due to ____.

  [a] its farming technology

  [b] its dietary tradition

  [c] its natural conditions

  [d] its commercial interests

  【答案】c

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据关键词crop-growing定位到原文第五段第三句just 25 per cent of the country’s
land is suitable for crop-growing, most of which is already occupied by arable
fields.意为“该国只有25%的土地适合农作物种植,其中大部分已经被耕地占用。”意思是农业种植受到国家自然条件限制,与c选项“自然条件”表述一致。abd选项根据本题定位句均未提及。

  29. it can be learned from the last paragraph that british people____.

  [a] rely largely on imports for fresh produce

  [b] enjoy a steady rise in fruit consumption

  [c] are seeking effective ways to cut calorie intake

  d] are trying to grow new varieties of grains

  【答案】a

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据题干信息可以定位至最后一段just 23 per cent of the fruit and vegetables
consumed in the uk are currently home-grown, so even with the most extreme
measures we could meet only 30 per cent of our fresh produce needs. that is
before we look for the space to grow the grains, sugars, seeds and oils that
provide us with the vast bulk of our current calorie
intake.意为“英国本土种植的果蔬所占比重很少,所以需要寻找更大的土地来种植这些作物”,说明英国难以供应农作物需求,与a选项“大量依赖新鲜农作物进口”表述一致。b选项consumption文中未提及,文中说的是生产(produce)而非消费。c选项calorieintake文中提到,但并未提到cut减少。d选项grow
new varieties of grains种植新品种,文中未提及,无中生有。

  30. the author’s attitude to food self-efficiency in the uk is ____.

  [a] defensive

  [b] doubtful

  [c] tolerant

  [d] optimistic

  【答案】b

  【解析】本题为态度题,定位第五段第一句话but switching to a mainly plant-based diet wouldn’t
help.
转折词but开头说明作者态度的转变,意为“转向一个主要依赖种植的饮食方式帮不上忙。”所以作者的态度为否定消极的,与b选项“怀疑”表述一致。a选项“防御的”和d选项“乐观的”均为积极态度,与原文不符。c选项“容忍的”属于中立态度,与原文不符。

  text 3

  when microsoft bought task management app wunerlist and mobile calendar
sunrise in 2015, it picked up two newcomers that were attracting considerable
buzz in silicon valley. microsoft’ s own office dominates the market for “
productivity” software, but the start-ups represented a new wave of technology
designed from the ground up for the smartphone world.

  both apps, however, were later scrapped, after microsoft said it had used
their best features in its own products. their teams of engineers stayed on,
making them two of the many “acqui-hires” that the biggest companies have used
to feed their insatiable hunger for tech talent.

  to microsoft’s critics, the fates of wunderlist and sunrise are examples of
a remorseless drive by big tech to chew up any innovative companies that lie in
their path. “ they bought the seedlings and closed them down,” complained paul
arnold, a partner at san francisco-based switch ventures, putting paid to
businesses that might one day turn into competitors. microsoft declined to
comment.

  like other start-up investors, mr arnold’s own business often depends on
selling start-ups to larger tech companies, though he admits to mixed feelings
about the result: “ i think these things are good for me, if i put my selfish
hat on. but are they good for the american economy? i don’t know.”

  the us federal trade commission says it wants to find the answer to that
question. this week, it asked the five most valuable us tech companies for
information about their many small acquisitions over the past decade. although
only a research project at this stage, the request has raised the prospect of
regulators wading into early-stage tech markets that until now have been beyond
their reach.

  given their combined market value of more than $5.5tm, rifling through such
small deals—many of them much less prominent than wunderlist and
sunrise—might seem beside the point. between them, the five companies(apple,
microsoft, google, amazon and facebook) have spent an average of only $3.4bn a
year on sub-$1bn acquisitions over the past five years—a drop in the ocean
compared with their massive financial reserves, and the more than $130bn of
venture capital that was invested in the us last year.

  however, critics say that the big companies use such deals to buy their
most threatening potential competitors before their businesses have a chance to
gain momentum, in some cases as part of a “buy and kill” tactic to simply close
them down.

  31. what is true about wuderlist and sunrise after their acquisitions?

  a. their market values declined.

  b. their tech features improved.

  c. their engineers were retained.

  d. their products were re-priced.

  【答案】c

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据关键词wuderlist and sunrise定位到原文第二段both apps, however, were later
scrapped, after microsoft said it had used their best features in its own
products. their teams of engineers stayed on, making them two of the many
“acqui-hires” that the biggest companies have used to feed their insatiable
hunger for tech talent.
意为“这两个应用程序都报废了,他们的工程师团队继续留了下来。”,与c选项“他们的工程师被留下来了”表述一致。abd三个选项文中均未提及。

  32. microsoft’s critics believe that the big tech companies tend to___

  a. ignore public options

  b. treat new tech talent unfairly

  c. exaggerate their product quality

  d. eliminate their potential competitors

  【答案】d

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据关键词microsoft’s critics定位至第三段to microsoft’s critics, the fates
of wunderlist and sunrise are examples of a remorseless drive by big tech to
chew up any innovative companies that lie in their path.
意为“对于微软的批评者来说,wunderlist和sunrise的命运是科技巨头毫不留情地打压阻碍其发展的创新公司的例子。”,与d选项“清除他们潜在的竞争者”表述一致。a选项publicoptions文中未提及,无中生有。b选项techtalent文中提到,但并没有说对待他们不公(unfairly)。c选项productquality文中未提及。

  33. paul arnold is concerned that small acquisitions might___

  a. harm the national economy

  b. worsen market competition

  c. discourage start-up investors

  d. weaken big tech companies

  【答案】a

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据关键词paul arnold定位到原文第四段 i think these things are good for me,
if i put my selfish hat on. but are they good for the american economy? i don’t
know.”答案定位but转折之后,意为“但是它们真的对美国经济有利吗?我不知道。”意思是对美国经济来说可能并不好,与a选项“
伤害了国家经济”表述一致。b选项market competition文中未提及。c选项start-up
investors文中提到,但是是积极评价,并非选项中的阻碍(discourage)。d选项big tech
companies文中提到,但并未提到削弱(weaken)。

  34. the us federal trade commission intend to___

  a. examine small acquisitions

  b. limit big tech’s expansion

  c. supervise start-ups operations

  d. encourage research collaboration

  【答案】a

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据us federal trade commission定位至第五段the us federal trade
commission says it wants to find the answer to that question. this week, it
asked the five most valuable us tech companies for information about their many
small acquisitions over the past decade. 意为“us federal trade
commission希望找到该问题的答案。本周它要求美国五家最有价值的科技公司提供有关过去十年中许多小规模收购的信息。”说明ftc开始调查小型收购行为,与a选项“调查小型收购行为”表述一致。bcd选项文中均未提及。

  35. for the five biggest tech companies, their small acquisition have
___

  a. brought little financial pressure

  b. raised few management challenges

  c. set an example for future deals

  d. generate considerable profits

  【答案】a

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据题干关键词five biggest tech companies定位到原文第六段between them, the five
companies(apple, microsoft, google, amazon and facebook) have spent an average
of only $3.4bn a year on sub-$1bn acquisitions over the past five years—a drop
in the ocean compared with their massive financial reserves, and the more than
$130bn of venture capital that was invested in the us last
year.意思是“这五家公司在过去五年平均每年仅花费34亿美元用于10亿美元以下的收购-与它们的巨额投资以及去年在美国超过1300亿美元的风险投资相比,这笔支出可以忽略不计。”与a选项“
基本没有造成财务压力”表述一致。b选项management
challenges文中未提及。c选项文中并未提到该行为的作用。d选项profits文中未提及。

  text 4

  we’ re fairly good at judging people based on first impression, thin slices
of experience ranging from a glimpse of a photo to five-minute interaction, and
deliberation can be not only extraneousbut intrusive. in one study of the
ability she dubbed “thin slicing,” the late psychologist naliniambady asked
participants to watch silent 10-second video clips of professors and to rate the
instructor’s overall effectiveness. their ratings correlated strongly with
students’ end-of-semester ratings. another set of participants had count
backward from 1,000 by nines as they watched the clips, occupying their
conscious working memory. their ratings were just as accurate, demonstrating the
intuitive nature of the social processing.

  critically, another group was asked to spend a minute writing down reasons
for their judgment, before giving the rating. accuracy dropped
dramatically.ambady suspected that deliberation focused them on vivid but
misleading cues, such as certain gestures or utterances, rather than letting the
complex interplay of subtle signals form a holistic impression. she found
similar interference when participants watched 15-second clips of pairs of
people and judged whether they were strangers, friends, or dating partners.

  other research shows we’ re better at detecting deception an sexual
orientation from thin slices when we rely on intuition instead of reflection.
“it’ s as if you’ re driving a stick shift,” says judith hall, a psychologist at
northeastern university, “and if you start thinking about it too much, you can’
t remember what you’ re doing. but if you go on automatic pilot, you’ re fine.
much of our social life is like that.”

  thinking too much can also harm our ability to form preferences. college
students’ ratings of strawberry jams and college course aligned better with
experts’ opinions when the students weren’t asked to analyze their rationale.
and people made car-buying decisions that were both objectively better and more
personally satisfying when asked to focus on their feelings rather than on
details, but only if the decision was complex-when they had a lot of information
to process.

  intuition’ s special powers are unleashed only in certain circumstances. in
one study, participants completed a battery of eight tasks, including four that
tapped reflective thinking (discerning rulecomprehending vocabulary) and four
that tapped intuition an creativity (generating new products or figures of
speech). then the rated the degree to which they had used intuition ( “gut
feelings,””hunches,” “my heart” ). use of their gut hurt their performance on
the first four tasks, as expected, and helped them on the rest. sometimes the
heart is smarter than the head.

  36. naliniambaby’ s study deals with

  a. instructor student interaction

  b. the power of people’ s memory

  c. the reliability of first impressions

  d. people’ s ability to influence others

  【答案】c

  【解析】本题为例证题,根据题干关键词naliniambaby定位到原文第一段第二句,根据例证题定位方法,答案出自例子之前的观点句,即we’ re
fairly good at judging people based on first impression, thin slices of
experience ranging from a glimpse of a photo to five-minute interaction, and
deliberation can be not only extraneous but
intrusive.意为“我们非常擅长基于第一印象判断他人,判断标准即可以是外在的,又可能是内在的。”,所以实验目的就是针对人的第一印象进行的,与选项c“第一印象的可信度”表述一致。a选项student
interaction原文中说的是experience中的一方面,并非实验目的。b选项memory是例子中的内容。d选项文中未提及,无中生有。

  37. in ambaby’s study, rating accuracy dropped when participants .

  a. gave the rating in limited time

  b. focused on specific details

  c. watched shorter video clips

  d. discussed with on another

  【答案】b

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据题干关键词rating accuracy dropped定位到原文第二段第二句话,答案出自下一句ambady
suspected that deliberation focused them on vivid but misleading cues, such as
certain gestures or utterances, rather than letting the complex interplay of
subtle signals form a holistic impression.
的转折后,意为“出现了误解的线索,例如特定的手势或表达,而不是完整的印象。”,意思是参与者没有关注整体的印象,而是特定的细节,与b选项“关注特定细节”表述一致。a和c选项出自下一句,但并没有提及limited
time和shorter video clips,属于过度推理。d选项文中未提及,无中生有。

  38. judith hall mentions driving to mention that .

  a. memory can be selective

  b. reflection can be distracting

  c. social skills must be cultivated

  d. deception is difficult to detect

  【答案】b

  【解析】本题为例证题,根据题干关键词judith hall定位到第三段第二句,答案出自例子之前的观点句,即other research shows
we’ re better at detecting deception an sexual orientation
fromthinsliceswhenwerelyonintuitioninsteadofreflection.意为“其他研究表明我们擅长发现欺骗,如果我们单纯依赖直觉而非反应。”意思是如果我们依赖反应,可能就发现不了欺骗,与b选项“反应可能是使人转移注意力”表述一致。a选项文中未提及,无中生有。c选项social
skills文中对应social processing,但并非同义替换,以此混淆考生。d选项文中提到deception,但并没有提到difficult to
detect,属于无中生有。

  39. when you are making complex decisions, it is advisable to .

  a. follow your feelings

  b. list your preferences

  c. seek expert advice

  d. collect enough data

  【答案】a

  【解析】本题为细节题,根据题干关键词making complex decisions定位原文第四段最后一句and people made
car-buying decisions that were both objectively better and more personally
satisfying when asked to focus on their feelings rather than on details, but
only if the decision was complex- when they had a lot of information
toprocess.意为“人们买车时,如果决定复杂,他们有很多信息要去考虑,这时应该关注他们的感受而不是细节。”,与a选项“跟随你的感受”表述一致。bcd三个选项文中未提及,无中生有。

  40. what can we learn from the last paragraph?

  a. generating mew products takes time.

  b. intuition may affect reflective tasks.

  c. vocabulary comprehension needs creativity.

  d. objective thinking may boost intuitiveness.

  【答案】b

  【解析】本题为推断题,可根据选项代回原文一一排除。a选项generating new products文中未提及,无中生有。c选项vocabulary
comprehension文中提到,属于reflective thinking中的内容,并未提到是否需要创新。d选项objective
thinking客观思考与最后一段主题相反,最后一段说的是直觉的重要性。正确选项b在文中对应then the rated the degree to which
they had used intuition ( “gut feelings,””hunches,” “my heart” ).
意为“他们使用直觉”,与b选项“直觉可能影响思考任务”表述一致。

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